Two contrasting models of development seek to radically transform food and farming today. The first focuses on modernizing and sustaining capitalism through the promotion of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) in food and agriculture. The second emphasizes food sovereignty and agroecology. The paper highlights some of the main controversies and challenges associated with each of these two approaches. Several of the most contested developments within ecological, discursive, economic, and political domains are identified as major drivers of transformation today.
Michel Pimbert is Director at the Centre for Agroecology, Water and Resilience at Coventry University